These days people are talking of colonization of Mars and Moon. Wait! Hold On! Earth needs lot of innovations in AI ! Don’t just jump in to make solutions for Mars and Moon where you don’t even know the oxygen needed by human would be available in enough quantities. There is lack of oxygen in COVID beds in hospitals and you want humans to take oxygen cylinders on Mars and Moon. How much oxygen is needed on colonies on Mars, can you compute ?
AI bases traffic load is measure by sensors! Why not AI based sensors in forest to detect the first fires and to automatically inform the departments.
AI is to assist mankind in things man can’t do better not in things man can do better. AI bases traffic load is measure by sensors. In this research article, it is proposed to develop AI based sensors in forest to detect the first fires. Further, an AI based system is described to automatically inform the concerned departments about rising fires in forest and the AI system takes first aid actions as well. Hence the complete AI based system is not only limited to just automatically informing the concerned departments but AI based systems can give FIRST – AID to burning trees.
Researchers are talking of robots for grocery shopping. This article suggests, one can do our grocery on our own, right now the priority should be on key essential things. Many forests are burning in high wildfires. AI innovation is needed for forest fires using sensors which can automatically detect the forest fires and inform the concerned departments. Further this article also presents an AI system to automate the first response of fire fighting by AI systems in automated mode till fire fighters come with help. This step is essential to curb the growth of fires. As once the fire grows it becomes even more difficult for humans leave aside machines to curtail its spread. All these measures are taken into account keep the known fact that what are the key blockers of fire. They are given as follows.
1. Sand: Sand instantly stops the air supply to the fire and stops the fire there and then only.
2. Wet soil: Wet soil when dropped from a distance is even more effective as it clings to the leaves and leaving no option for fire to burn the touched parts.
3. Water fresh: Fresh water can cool down the fire but can temporarily stop fire, as when the water from the parts is evaporated the fire again starts on the same region that was sprinkled with water, in case the spread of fire is huge.
4. Co2 and other chemicals the chemical science experts can provide the name. 5. Waste water. In case fresh water is not available waste water supply can be used, since aim is to stop the fire.
We shall henceforth call it any of the modes to stop the forest fires as the substance to stop the fires. The key motivation is that forest fires not only cause harm to environment by producing harmful gases, but also destroy huge flora and fauna of the Earth. So many animals are running here and there in case of forest fires and it causes damage to adjoining human inhabitations as well. Further, human lives are affected and loss may be incurred in uncontrolled fires in forest lands. This also causes an imbalance in environment as forests are a huge produce of oxygen that animals and humans’ intake as a basic energy creation process in body metabolism.
The article is encouraged by the following recent developments in the area of AI. Firstly, sensor is very commonly used in almost all areas of daily use these days. One such example is sensors to monitor traffic loads, sensors to check if water is filled in tanks, sensors to check air quality. So why not sensors to detect fires in forests and AI to use these sensors in most efficient way to inform the concerned authorities to prevent the growth of wildfires. Secondly, the motivation is also based on seeing the barbaric ways in which humble firefighters are risking their lives to stop the fires. In the twenty first century, the fire fighters are carrying pipes and sprinkling waters from small vessel they are carrying. This shows a contrast in gap and the ignorance by AI experts to well equip the fire fighters with the latest in engineering developments. Thirdly, the motivation is also to propose an AI based system to automatically help the fire fighters and provide first-aid to forests on its own and in a semi supervised and semi guidance provide by firefighters. Fourth motivation is from the automated cars. Why not remote-controlled cars operated by fire fighters, to guide into the forests to do the work for them. So many fire fighters lost their lives saving humans, forests and some saving both.
2. AI based Sensors for fire alarms once Wildfires are detected
The AI based sensors can be installed in forest at an equal distance. The distance should be equal to the range of the sensor used. The key function of the sensor is to detect the fumes and gases released in case of fire in forest. Further, the sensor is provided with a GPS locator, whose main purpose is to send the GPS location to the forest fire fighting units. Once the message is reached by the forest department, the same can be verified with the help of any kind of satellite image or quick manual visit. Further the sensor also sends the exact degree and potency of the fire. When the fumes and fire potency is high the forest department don’t need to verify much and start to reach the GPS location on time. The exact process is depicted in Figure 1 where in constant readings by sensors are constantly send to the forest departments servers. Once a fore alarm is raised by any sensor the team is activated to take action. Note that the sensor shall send the exact level of fumes caught by it and the severity levels as well. The system also used safelight imagery and image processing techniques for fire depictions.
3. Technique for AI based Systems to stop fire once Wildfires are confirmed
Once a fire alarm is received by the forest department either by sensors or by constant alarm on satellite imagery, which ever was installed or both in case both were put on work. The buck now passes to the forest department. The GPS location has been provided by either of the two systems. This is followed by activation of AI automated system. The automated AI based system consists of fire proof trucks, which are operates automatically. There is not much harm in driving the automatic fire proof trucks in forest as they can lest hit a tree in worst case. Though these automated vehicles were not very efficient on roads as of now. Hence a remote-control system is enabled in the fire proof trucks. These trucks are guided to the exact GPS locations and there, they start to release on or more of the following as judged by the algorithm or by the fire fighter, which ever is earlier to take the decision making. Hence this AI based system is autonomous in its decision making and can be remote controlled by human in charge in case it missed out the right decision making. This is the basic model as of now. This can be improved by learning on real time exercises on ground of action. The AI fire fighting system is described in brief in Figure 2.
The key point to note is human fire fighters are not well equipped with the most sophisticated tools to handle the fires. May be because of lack of research in this area. And hence till the right amount of research is done to determine the substances needed to be dispersed in wildfires by the firefighters, AI based automated and semi-automated systems (remote-controlled fire proof trucks) can be used to dive in deep areas. Apart form this the water sprinklers are switched on taking out water from underground locations though automated motors and cooling the areas as much as it can. The water can be taken from water table below ground or in water (pure or waste) stored in forest reservoirs for this purpose if there is no underground water. This may require lot of investments, but the question is what costs more the loss of trees, the release of gasses or this cost of installations.
4. Future Work and Conclusion
This seem like tough task but to the realization of the fact that fire fighters are not well equipped with the things they should be having as an AI researcher I am suggesting the way AI can help in this process. Though equipping the forest fire department with right gadget shall be much cheaper option. The future work involves refining the proposed model more with the new technologies in climate handling with time.
(PDF) AI based Automated Forest Fires handling System for Stopping the Spread of Fires in Forests. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354313089_AI_based_Automated_Forest_Fires_handling_System_for_Stopping_the_Spread_of_Fires_in_Forests [accessed Sep 02 2021].